When conducting magic rituals, it is mandatory to use magic words, expressions, spells, as well as various symbols with which to cement the magical effect.
One of the most widely used magical symbols, which is irrevocably present when conducting white, as well as black and grey magic, is the pentagram.
Before the ritualist begins to cast their spells, they usually draw a circle and then inscribe the pentagram in it. When the pentagram is turned right side up, it is used for white magic but if it is turned upside down, it is used for black magic because the upside down pentagram is the symbol of the Devil.
A pentagram whose points are facing up is considered a symbol of the interconnection between all things. For this reason, oftentimes you may hear the pentagram called the "endless knot". Its 4 tips symbolize the 4 elements, plus the Holy Spirit or divine beginning.
It is drawn to serve as a shield that protects the caster. Pentagrams were drawn as early as in Ancient Babylon, while during the Middle Ages, pentagrams were used to engrave walls, doors and beds, in order to ward off evil spirits.
As mentioned previously, the pentagram is used both for black, as well as white, magic. When used for white magic, the pentagram is used for preparation of a ritual for universal protection. In that case, the person uttering the spell has to stand in its center, with one of the rays facing forward, matching the direction the person is staring and 2 of them facing back, behind the caster.
And vice versa - black magic casters draw the pentagram, then they turn their back to the devil side and utter their spell with 2 of the rays facing out from their front.