Egyptian civilization was born on the banks of the Nile in 3150 BC, when the upper and lower Egypt were united under the rule of the first Pharaoh. Egyptians were intelligent people who made inventions in almost every corner of life, which made them the longest lived civilization.
Although normally the Egyptian civilization is associated with the pyramids and mummies, the Egyptians actually created numerous inventions that have made this civilization one of the greatest to have existed.
Some of these inventions are
Pyramids: The word has become fascinated with the pyramids and tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs and the Structures of ancient Egypt. The world received its first pyramid in the form of a tiered pyramid on the Sahara, which was built in 2750 BC by king Djoser. Before that kings were buried in rectangular temples of mud bricks, which are called mastaba. The architect of Djoser, Imotep, had decided to put several mastabi in ascending order on each other and hence making the first pyramid.
Papyrus: The discovery of Egyptian papyrus paper called Egyptian paper was derived from the plant Cyperus papyrus, growing on the banks of the Nile. In 3000 pr.Hr the Egyptians developed a technique to create the papyrus paper, rugs, baskets, ropes and sandals. The core of the plant is cut and extracted into strips and placed over one another from and left under a weight for several days. The quality showed as it was still in good form 5000 years after been written on.
Black ink: One of the many gifts given to us by Ancient Egypt is the black ink. To create the ink they mixed smut with clay and beeswax, however to have ink in different colors they were replaced with other organic carbonaceous material. To achieve as red ocher was used instead of soot. The quality shows here too as centuries later there is evidence of manuscripts written with this ink that are still clear and legible.
Hauled by ox plow: This invention has not only revolutionized the cultivation of the Egyptian people, but its modified version is used today by farmers in the underdeveloped countries that can not afford machines for plowing fields.
Watches: Egyptians taught themselves to recognize the world hours by inventing a clock. Sundial was an obelisk, the shadow is created during the day and helps to make the distinction between morning and afternoon. Egyptians recognized the shortest and longest day of the year, when comparing the shadow when it is shortest and the longest. Somewhere around 1417-1379 BC, during the reign of Amenhotep III, they invented a water clock that allows them to know the time during the dark hours. He represented a stone vessel with sloping sides and a small hole in the bottom through which water can run out at specified intervals. Changing water levels to be followed by markings made on the inner walls of each interval told the time.
Solar calendar: Ancient Civilizations checked the day using the lunar calendar. Egyptians were the first to create a solar calendar consisting of 12 months each with 30 days and 5 additional days at the end of the year. Over 238 B.C. they made the first leap year calendar and added an extra day every four years.
While archaeologists and historians dig deeper into the understanding of Ancient Civilizations, Ancient Egypt astounds the world with their ingenuity. Together with the achievements that they have made in science and architecture, the Egyptians could be called precursors of existing technologies today.